WASHINGTON (AP) — The Taliban‘s takeover of Kabul has deepened the mutual mistrust between the U.S. and Pakistan, putative allies who’ve tangled over Afghanistan. However either side nonetheless want one another.

Because the Biden administration seems for brand new methods to cease terrorist threats in Afghanistan, it in all probability will look once more to Pakistan, which stays vital to U.S. intelligence and nationwide safety due to its proximity to Afghanistan and connections to the Taliban leaders now in cost.

Over twenty years of warfare, American officers accused Pakistan of enjoying a double sport by promising to struggle terrorism and cooperate with Washington whereas cultivating the Taliban and different extremist teams that attacked U.S. forces in Afghanistan. 

Islamabad pointed to what it noticed as failed guarantees of a supportive authorities in Kabul after the U.S. drove the Taliban from energy after the assaults of Sept. 11, 2001, as extremist teams took refuge in jap Afghanistan and launched lethal assaults all through Pakistan.

However the U.S. needs Pakistani cooperation in counterterrorism efforts and will search permission to fly surveillance flights into Afghanistan or different intelligence cooperation. Pakistan needs U.S. navy help and good relations with Washington, whilst its leaders overtly have fun the Taliban‘s rise to energy.

“During the last 20 years, Pakistan has been very important for numerous logistics functions for the U.S. navy. What’s actually been troubling is that, sadly, there hasn’t been loads of belief,” stated U.S. Rep. Raja Krishnamoorthi, an Illinois Democrat who’s on the Home Intelligence Committee. “I believe the query is whether or not we will recover from that historical past to reach at a brand new understanding.”

Pakistan‘s prime minister, in remarks Friday to the U.N. Common Meeting, made clear there’s a lengthy technique to go. Imran Khan tried to painting his nation because the sufferer of American ungratefulness for its help in Afghanistan over time. As a substitute of a mere “phrase of appreciation,” Pakistan has acquired blame, Khan stated.

Former diplomats and intelligence officers from each international locations say the chances for cooperation are severely restricted by the occasions of the previous twenty years and Pakistan‘s enduring competitors with India. 

The earlier Afghan authorities, which was strongly backed by India, routinely accused Pakistan of harboring the Taliban. The brand new Taliban authorities consists of officers that American officers have lengthy believed are linked to Pakistan‘s spy company, the Inter-Companies Intelligence. 

Husain Haqqani, a former Pakistani ambassador to the US, stated he understood “the temptation of officers in each international locations to try to reap the benefits of the state of affairs” and discover frequent floor. However Haqqani stated he anticipated Pakistan to present “all attainable cooperation to the Taliban.” 

“This has been a second Pakistan has been ready for 20 years,” stated Haqqani, now on the Hudson Institute suppose tank. “They now really feel that they’ve a satellite tv for pc state.”

U.S. officers are attempting to rapidly construct what President Joe Biden calls an “over the horizon” capability to observe and cease terrorist threats.

With out a accomplice nation bordering Afghanistan, the U.S. has to fly surveillance drones lengthy distances, limiting the time they can be utilized to observe over targets. The U.S. additionally misplaced most of its community of informants and intelligence companions within the now-deposed Afghan authorities, making it vital to search out frequent floor with different governments which have extra assets within the nation.

Pakistan may very well be useful in that effort by permitting “overflight” rights for American spy planes from the Persian Gulf or allowing the U.S. to base surveillance or counterterrorism groups alongside its border with Afghanistan. There are few different choices amongst Afghanistan‘s neighbors. Iran is a U.S. adversary and Central Asian international locations north of Afghanistan all face various levels of Russian affect.

There aren’t any identified agreements up to now. 

CIA Director William Burns visited Islamabad this month to satisfy with Gen. Qamar Javed Bajwa, Pakistan‘s military chief, and Lt. Gen. Faiz Hameed, who leads the ISI, in response to a Pakistani authorities assertion. Burns and Hameed have individually visited Kabul in latest weeks to satisfy with Taliban leaders. The CIA declined to touch upon the visits.

Pakistani Overseas Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi famous this previous week that Islamabad had cooperated with U.S. requests to facilitate peace talks earlier than the Taliban takeover and that it had agreed to U.S. navy requests all through the warfare.

“We have now usually been criticized for not doing sufficient,” Qureshi instructed The Related Press on Wednesday. “However we’ve not been appreciated sufficient for having performed what was performed.”

Qureshi wouldn’t immediately reply whether or not Pakistan would permit the basing of surveillance tools or overflight of drones. 

“They don’t should be bodily there to share intelligence,” he stated of the U.S. “There are smarter methods of doing it.”

The CIA and ISI have a protracted historical past in Afghanistan, courting to their shared aim of arming bands of mujahedeen — “freedom fighters” — in opposition to the Soviet Union’s occupation within the Nineteen Eighties. The CIA despatched weapons and cash into Afghanistan by way of Pakistan. 

These fighters included Osama bin Laden. Others would turn into leaders of the Taliban, which emerged victorious from a civil warfare in 1996 and gained management of many of the nation. The Taliban gave refuge to bin Laden and different leaders of al-Qaida, which launched lethal assaults on Individuals overseas in 1998 after which struck the U.S. on Sept. 11, 2001.

After 9/11, the U.S. instantly sought Pakistan‘s cooperation in its struggle in opposition to al Qaeda and different terrorist teams. Declassified cables printed by George Washington College’s Nationwide Safety Archive present officers in President George W. Bush’s administration made a number of calls for of Pakistan, from intercepting arms shipments heading to al-Qaida to offering the U.S. with intelligence and permission to fly navy and intelligence planes over its territory.

The CIA would perform tons of of drone strikes launched from Pakistan focusing on al Qaeda leaders and others alleged to have ties to terrorist teams. A whole lot of civilians died within the strikes, in response to figures saved by exterior observers, resulting in widespread protests and public anger in Pakistan.

Pakistan continued to be accused of harboring the Taliban after the U.S.-backed coalition drove the group from energy in Kabul. And bin Laden was killed in 2011 by U.S. particular forces in a secret raid on a compound within the Pakistani metropolis of Abbottabad, residence to the nation’s navy academy. The bin Laden operation led many within the U.S. to query whether or not Pakistan had harbored bin Laden and angered Pakistanis who felt the raid violated their sovereignty.

For years, CIA officers tried to confront their Pakistani counterparts after gathering extra proof of Pakistani intelligence officers serving to the Taliban transfer cash and fighters right into a then-growing insurgency in neighboring Afghanistan, stated Douglas London, who oversaw the CIA’s counterterrorism operations in South Asia till 2018. 

“They might say, ‘You simply come to my workplace, inform me the place the situation is,’” he stated. “They might simply often pay lip service to us and say they couldn’t verify the intel.”

London, creator of the forthcoming e-book “The Recruiter,” stated he anticipated American intelligence would take into account restricted partnerships with Pakistan on mutual enemies comparable to al-Qaeda or Islamic State-Khorasan, which took duty for the lethal suicide assault exterior the Kabul airport final month in the course of the ultimate days of the U.S. evacuation.

The danger, London stated, is at occasions “your accomplice is as a lot of a risk to you because the enemy who you’re pursuing.”


Related Press author Edith M. Lederer on the United Nations contributed to this report.

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